If you frequently get your computer an improper shutdown or power outage, in the long run it will damage your computer with cross-linked files or scratched disk, and you wont be able to boot or start the computer.
On Windows computers, disk checking can be achieved by the following command:
If using the current operating system:
CHKDSK /F /R /B
If using the recovery tool/disk:
CHKDSK /P /R
* The /F parameter instructs the program to fix the errors on the hard disk.
* The /R parameter instructs the program to locate bad sector(s) and recover any readable information. This will require the /F parameter.
* The /B parameter instructs the program to re-evaluate bad cluster(s) found on the drive. This will require the /R parameter.
* If you are using the current operating system and you issued a CHKDSK /F /R /B, you will be prompted to schedule the disk check. Confirm by pressing Y. The disk check will be performed on the next computer start up.
On Linux machines, disk checking are done automatically.